Sean Hampton. Jan Terje. Joe Kain. Gloom Influx. Justin Disgusting. Bruno Harrisson. Brendan Thomas. J-F Lepage. These are internal identifiers that are unique to a mutation on a particular transcript and are displayed in the URL of the mutation pages.
Therefore, several of these internal ids could be associated with a single genomic COSV id where the mutation has been mapped to all overlapping genes and transcripts. Signalling by NGF.
This section displays a table of mutated samples, with tissue, histology and zygosity information. This section displays a table of references for the mutation. The air-speed should be sufficient to prevent fumes escaping into the laboratory and should not be varied during the test.
A draught screen should be erected around the apparatus. A hot flame from a gas burner minimum diameter of 5 mm is used to ignite the pile at one end.
When the pile has burned a distance of 80 mm, the rate of burning over the next mm is measured. The test is performed six times, using a clean cool plate each time, unless a positive result is observed earlier. The burning time from the preliminary screening test 1.
Powdery, granular or paste-like substances are to be considered as highly flammable when the time of burning in any tests carried out according to the test procedure described in 1. Powders of metals or metal-alloys are considered to be highly flammable when they can be ignited and the flame or the zone of reaction spreads over the whole sample in 10 minutes or less. Chemical products for industrial use. Determination of the flammability of solids. This method allows a determination of whether gases mixed with air at room temperature circa 20 C and atmospheric pressure are flammable and, if so, over what range of concentrations.
Mixtures of increasing concentrations of the test gas with air are exposed to an electrical spark and it is observed whether ignition occurs.
The range of flammability is the range of concentration between the lower and the upper explosion limits. The lower and the upper explosion limits are those limits of concentration of the flammable gas in admixture with air at which propagation of a flame does not occur.
The concentration of gas in air is increased step by step and the mixture is exposed at each stage to an electrical spark. The test vessel is an upright glass cylinder having a minimum inner diameter of 50 mm and a minimum height of mm. The ignition electrodes are separated by a distance of 3 to 5 mm and are placed 60 mm above the bottom of the cylinder.
The cylinder is fitted with a pressure-release opening. The apparatus has to be shielded to restrict any explosion damage. A standing induction spark of 0,5 sec. An example of a suitable apparatus is described in reference 2. Using proportioning pumps, a known concentration of gas in air is introduced into the glass cylinder. A spark is passed through the mixture and it is observed whether or not a flame detaches itself from the ignition source and propagates independently.
The occurrence of flame propagation is the only relevant information data for the determination of this property. Determination of the flammability of gases. Berthold, D. Conrad, T. Grewer, H. Grosse-Wortmann, T. Redeker und H. This test method can be used to determine whether the reaction of a substance with water or damp air leads to the development of dangerous amounts of gas or gases which may be highly flammable.
The test method can be applied to both solid and liquid substances. This method is not applicable to substances which spontaneously ignite when in contact with air. The substance is tested according to the step by step sequence described below; if ignition occurs at any step, no further testing is necessary. If it is known that the substance does not react violently with water then proceed to step 4 1.
The test substance is placed in a trough containing distilled water at 20 C and it is noted whether or not the evolved gas ignites. The test substance is placed on a filter paper floating on the surface of a dish containing distilled water at 20 C and it is noted whether or not the evolved gas ignites. The filter paper is merely to keep the substance in one place to increase the chances of ignition.
The test substance is made into a pile approximately 2 cm high and 3 cm diameter. A few drops of water are added to the pile and it is noted whether or not the evolved gas ignites. The test substance is mixed with distilled water at 20 C and the rate of evolution of gas is measured over a period of seven hours, at one-hour intervals.
If the rate of evolution is erratic, or is increasing, after seven hours, the measuring time should be extended to a maximum time of five days. A small quantity approximately 2 mm diameter of the test substance should be placed in a trough containing distilled water. A note should be made of whether i any gas is evolved and ii if ignition of the gas occurs.
If ignition of the gas occurs then no further testing of the substance is needed because the substance is regarded as hazardous. A filter-paper is floated flat on the surface of distilled water in any suitable vessel, e. A small quantity of the test substance approximately 2 mm diameter is placed onto the centre of the filter-paper. The test substance is made into a pile approximately 2 cm high and 3 cm diameter with an indentation in the top.
A few drops of water are added to the hollow and a note is made of whether i any gas is evolved and ii if ignition of the gas occurs. The test procedure is applicable to solid or liquid substances, which, in small amounts, will ignite spontaneously a short time after coming into contact with air at room temperature circa 20 C.
Substances which need to be exposed to air for hours or days at room temperature or at elevated temperatures before ignition occurs are not covered by this test method. Substances are considered to have pyrophoric properties if they ignite or cause charring under the conditions described in 1.
The auto-flammability of liquids may also need to be tested using method A. The substance, whether solid or liquid, is added to an inert carrier and brought into contact with air at ambient temperature for a period of five minutes.
If liquid substances do not ignite then they are absorbed onto filter paper and exposed to air at ambient temperature circa 20 C for five minutes. If a solid or liquid ignites, or a liquid ignites or chars a filter paper, then the substance is considered to be pyrophoric. Repeatability: because of the importance in relation to safety, a single positive result is sufficient for the substance to be considered pyrophoric.
A porcelain cup of circa 10 cm diameter is filled with diatomaceous earth to a height of about 5 mm at room temperature circa 20 C. Diatomaceous earth or any other comparable inert substance which is generally obtainable shall be taken as representative of soil onto which the test substance might be spilt in the event of an accident. Dry filter paper is required for testing liquids which do not ignite on contact with air when in contact with an inert carrier.
Circa 5 cm3 of the liquid to be tested is poured into the prepared porcelain cup and it is observed whether the substance ignites within five minutes.
A 0,5 ml test sample is delivered from a syringe to an indented filter paper and it is observed whether ignition or charring of the filter paper occurs within five minutes of the liquid being added. The test is performed three times unless ignition or charring occurs. If the substance ignites within five minutes when added to an inert carrier and exposed to air, or a liquid substance chars or ignites a filter paper within five minutes when added and exposed to air, it is considered to be pyrophoric.
Determination of the spontaneous flammability of solids and liquids. The method provides a scheme of testing to determine whether a solid or a pasty substance presents a danger of explosion when submitted to the effect of a flame thermal sensitivity , or to shock or friction sensitivity to mechanical stimuli , and whether a liquid substance presents a danger of explosion when submitted to the effect of a flame or shock. The method yields data to assess the likelihood of initiating an explosion by means of certain common stimuli.
The method is not intended to ascertain whether a substance is capable of exploding under any conditions. The method is appropriate for determining whether a substance will present a danger of explosion thermal and mechanical sensitivity under the particular conditions specified in the directive.
It is based on a number of types of apparatus which are widely used internationally 1 and which usually give meaningful results.
It is recognised that the method is not definitive. Alternative apparatus to that specified may be used provided that it is internationally recognised and the results can be adequately correlated with those from the specified apparatus. The tests need not be performed when available thermodynamic information e. A test of mechanical sensitivity with respect to friction is not required for liquids. Substances which may explode under the effect of flame or which are sensitive to shock or friction in the specified apparatus or are more mechanically sensitive than 1,3-dinitrobenzene in alternative apparatus.
Preliminary tests are necessary to establish safe conditions for the performance of the three tests of sensitivity. For safety reasons, before performing the main tests, very small samples circa 10 mg of the substance are subjected to heating without confinement in a gas flame, to shock in any convenient form of apparatus and to friction by the use of a mallet against an anvil or any form of friction machine.
The objective is to ascertain if the substance is so sensitive and explosive that the prescribed sensitivity tests, particularly that of thermal sensitivity, should be performed with special precautions so as to avoid injury to the operator.
The method involves heating the substance in a steel tube, closed by orifice plates with differing diameters of hole, to determine whether the substance is liable to explode under conditions of intense heat and defined confinement. The method involves subjecting the substance to the shock from a specified mass dropped from a specified height. The method involves subjecting solid or pasty substances to friction between standard surfaces under specified conditions of load and relative motion.
The apparatus consists of a non-reusable steel tube with its re-usable closing device figure 1 , installed in a heating and protective device. Each tube is deep-drawn from sheet steel see Appendix and has an internal diameter of 24 mm, a length of 75 mm and wall thickness of 0,5 mm.
The tubes are flanged at the open end to enable them to be closed by the orifice plate assembly. This consists of a pressure-resistant orifice plate, with a central hole, secured firmly to a tube using a two-part screw joint nut and threaded collar. The nut and threaded collar are made from chromium-manganese steel see Appendix which is spark-free up to C. The orifice plates are 6 mm thick, made from heat-resistant steel see Appendix , and are available with a range of diameters of opening.
Normally the substance is tested as received although in certain cases, e. For solids, the mass of material to be used in each test is determined using a two-stage dry run procedure. A tared tube is filled with 9 cm3 of substance and the substance tamped with 80 N force applied to the total cross-section of the tube.
For reasons of safety or in cases where the physical form of the sample can be changed by compression, other filling procedures may be used; e. If the material is compressible then more is added and tamped until the tube is filled to 55 mm from the top. The total mass used to fill the tube to the 55 mm level is determined and two further increments, each tamped with 80 N force, are added.
Material is then either added with tamping, or taken out, as required, to leave the tube filled to a level 15 mm from the top. A second dry run is performed, starting with a tamped quantity of a third of the total mass found in the first dry run.
Two more of these increments are added with 80 N tamping and the level of the substance in the tube adjusted to 15 mm from the top by addition or subtraction of material as required. The amount of solid determined in the second dry run is used for each trial; filling being performed in three equal amounts, each compressed to 9 cm3 by whatever force is necessary.
This may be facilitated by the use of spacing rings. Liquids and gels are loaded into the tube to a height of 60 mm taking particular care with gels to prevent the formation of voids. The threaded collar is slipped onto the tube from below, the appropriate orifice plate is inserted and the nut tightened after applying some molybdenum disulphide based lubricant. It is essential to check that none of the substance is trapped between the flange and the plate, or in the threads. Heating is provided by propane taken from an industrial cylinder, fitted with a pressure regulator 60 to 70 mbar , through a meter and evenly distributed as indicated by visual observation of the flames from the burners by a manifold to four burners.
The burners are located around the test chamber as shown in figure 1. The four burners have a combined consumption of about 3. Alternative fuel gases and burners may be used but the heating rate must be as specified in figure 3. For all apparatus, the heating rate must be checked periodically using tubes filled with dibutyl phthalate as indicated in figure 3. Each test is performed until either the tube is fragmented or the tube has been heated for five minutes.
A test resulting in the fragmentation of the tube into three or more pieces, which in some cases may be connected to each other by narrow strips of metal as illustrated in figure 2, is evaluated as giving an explosion. A test resulting in fewer fragments or no fragmentation is regarded as not giving an explosion.
A series of three tests with a 6,0 mm diameter orifice plate is first performed and, if no explosions are obtained, a second series of three tests is performed with a 2,0 mm diameter orifice plate.
If an explosion occurs during either test series then no further tests are required. The test result is considered positive if an explosion occurs in either of the above series of tests. The essential parts of a typical fall hammer apparatus are a cast steel block with base, anvil, column, guides, drop weights, release device and a sample holder.
A column, made from seamless drawn steel tube, is secured in a holder screwed on to the back of the steel block. The striking head of each weight is of hardened steel, HRC 60 to 63, and has a minimum diameter of 25 mm. The sample under test is enclosed in a shock device consisting of two coaxial solid steel cylinders, one above the other, in a hollow cylindrical steel guide ring.
The solid steel cylinders should be of 10 0,, 0, mm diameter and 10 mm height and have polished surfaces, rounded edges radius of curvature 0,5 mm and a hardness of HRC 58 to The shock device is assembled on an intermediate anvil 26 mm diameter and 26 mm height made of steel and centred by a ring with perforations to allow escape of fumes. The sample volume should be 40 mm3, or a volume to suit any alternative apparatus. Solid substances should be tested in the dry state and prepared as follows:.
Substances normally supplied as pastes should be tested in the dry state where possible or, in any case, following removal of the maximum possible amount of diluent. Liquid substances are tested with a 1 mm gap between the upper and lower steel cylinders.
A series of six tests are performed dropping the 10 kg mass from 0,40 m 40 J. If an explosion is obtained during the six tests at 40 J, a further series of 6 tests, dropping a 5 kg mass from 0,15 m 7,5 J , must be performed. In other apparatus, the sample is compared with the chosen reference substance using an established procedure e. The friction apparatus consists of a cast steel base plate on which is mounted the friction device. This consists of a fixed porcelain peg and moving porcelain plate.
The porcelain plate is held in a carriage which runs in two guides. The carriage is connected to an electric motor via a connecting rod, an eccentric cam and suitable gearing such that the porcelain plate is moved, once only, back and forth beneath the porcelain peg for a distance of 10 mm. The porcelain peg may be loaded with, for example, or newtons.
The cylindrical porcelain peg is also made of white technical porcelain and is 15 mm long, has a diameter of 10 mm and roughened spherical end surfaces with a radius of curvature of 10 mm. Explosive substances and substances which ignite spontaneously in contact with air at ambient temperature should not be submitted to this test. The test procedure is applicable to gases, liquids and vapours which, in the presence of air, can be ignited by a hot surface.
The auto-ignition temperature can be considerably reduced by the presence of catalytic impurities, by the surface material or by a higher volume of the test vessel. The degree of auto-ignitability is expressed in terms of the auto-ignition temperature. The auto-ignition temperature is the lowest temperature at which the test substance will ignite when mixed with air under the conditions defined in the test method.
Reference substances are cited in the standards see 1. The method determines the minimum temperature of the inner surface of an enclosure that will result in ignition of a gas, vapour or liquid injected into the enclosure. The repeatability varies according to the range of auto-ignition temperatures and the test method used. Record the test-temperature, atmospheric pressure, quantity of sample used and time-lag until ignition occurs.
The purpose of this test is to provide preliminary information on the auto-flammability of solid substances at elevated temperatures. If the heat developed either by a reaction of the substance with oxygen or by exothermic decomposition is not lost rapidly enough to the surroundings, self-heating leading to self-ignition occurs. Self-ignition therefore occurs when the rate of heat-production exceeds the rate of heat loss.
Involvement of serine but not cysteine proteases. Didenko VV, Hornsby PJ: Presence of double-strand breaks with single-base overhangs in cells undergoing apoptosis but not necrosis. Wyllie AH: Glucocorticoid-induced thymocytes apoptosis is associated with endogenous endonuclease activation. Metcalf D: The thymus and lymphopoiesis. Thymus in Immunobiology. Structure, Function, and Role in Disease. Tacke J: Thermal therapies in interventional MR imaging.
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