Case Lab first converted an old silent-film projector into a recording device in , using the projector's light for exposing a soundtrack onto film. The process which de Forest called Phonofilm recorded sound as parallel lines of variable shades of gray, photographically transcribing the electrical waveforms from a microphone , which were translated back into sound waves when the movie was projected.
Case Lab fine-tuned the process with an invention called the 'Aeo-light' for use in sound cameras. During filming, audio signals modulated the Aeo-light to expose the film's audio directly inside the camera, streamlining Phonofilm's process for synchronizing a motion picture with its soundtrack.
In , Sponable focused on the design of these single-system cameras, in which both sound and picture were recorded on the same negative. Later, the Wall Camera Corporation rebuilt the machine with improved results. De Forest also worked with early newsreel maker, Freeman Harrison Owens , who by , had developed his own patented sound camera, and spent time in Berlin working with the Tri-Ergon corporation and researching the development of European sound film systems.
Phonofilm was used mainly to record stage performances, speeches, and musical acts in and around New York City, but Hollywood movie studios expressed little interest in the system.
Since the Hollywood studios controlled the major theater chains, de Forest showed his films in independent theaters in a short-form series, akin to vaudeville , which included Max and Dave Fleischer 's Song Car-Tunes. The Fleischers used the Phonofilm process for their animated shorts, which included the now-classic " Follow the Bouncing Ball " gimmick. In , Owens parted ways with de Forest, and Case followed suit in , because of de Forest's taking sole credit for Phonofilm.
One month later, the Phonofilm Company filed for bankruptcy. Case and Sponable went on to implement their optical sound-on-film innovations as the Movietone sound system , and the UK rights to Phonofilm were bought up by theater chain owner Isadore Schlesinger, who used the technology to release short films of British music hall performers through Hoxie's Pallophotophone had success as an optical recording device through the support of General Electric.
The Pallophotophone utilized the entire width of unsprocketed 35mm Kodak monochrome film to record and replay multiple audio tracks. Unlike Photofilm, this optical sound technology used a photoelectric process which captured audio wave forms generated by a vibrating mirror galvanometer , and was the first effective multitrack recording system, predating magnetic tape multitrack recorders by at least 20 years. The first demonstrations of the Photophone, were given in , and in a sound version music plus sound effects only of the silent film Wings , toured to a dozen specially equipped theaters.
Case and Sponible's Movietone sound system made several modifications to the earlier Phonofilm system which they had helped create.
Unless you're short of space, we can't quite see why you'd get this over the M3, as it's considerably less sexy to look at. Nonetheless, it's a similarly excellent product in audio terms..
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