Architecture was only one expression of the Baroque style. In music, famous names included Bach, Handel, and Vivaldi. Famous inventors and scientists of the day include Blaise Pascal and Isaac Newton. During the last phase of the Baroque period, builders constructed graceful white buildings with sweeping curves. Rococo art and architecture is characterized by elegant decorative designs with scrolls, vines, shell-shapes, and delicate geometric patterns. Rococo architects applied Baroque ideas with a lighter, more graceful touch.
In fact, some historians suggest that Rococo is simply a later phase of the Baroque period. By the s, European architects were turning away from elaborate Baroque and Rococo styles in favor of restrained Neoclassical approaches. Orderly, symmetrical Neoclassical architecture reflected the intellectual awakening among the middle and upper classes in Europe during the period historians often call the Enlightenment.
Ornate Baroque and Rococo styles fell out of favor as architects for a growing middle class reacted to and rejected the opulence of the ruling class. These buildings were proportioned according to the classical orders with details borrowed from ancient Greece and Rome. In the late s and early s, the newly-formed United States drew upon Classical ideals to construct grand government buildings and an array of smaller, private homes. The style spread to architecture and furniture in the s as a revolt against industrialization turned people's attention to the natural forms and personal craftsmanship of the Arts and Crafts Movement.
Art Nouveau buildings often have asymmetrical shapes, arches, and decorative Japanese-like surfaces with curved, plant-like designs and mosaics. The period is often confused with Art Deco , which has an entirely different visual look and philosophical origin. In Germany it was called Jugendstil ; in Austria it was Sezessionsstil ; in Spain it was Modernismo , which predicts or event begins the modern era.
Also known as Beaux Arts Classicism, Academic Classicism, or Classical Revival, Beaux Arts architecture is characterized by order, symmetry, formal design, grandiosity, and elaborate ornamentation. Combining classical Greek and Roman architecture with Renaissance ideas, Beaux Arts architecture was a favored style for grand public buildings and opulent mansions. In the early 20th century, medieval Gothic ideas were applied to modern buildings, both private homes and the new type of architecture called skyscrapers.
Gothic Revival was a Victorian style inspired by Gothic cathedrals and other medieval architecture. In the early 20th century, Gothic Revival ideas were applied to modern skyscrapers, which are often called Neo-Gothic. Neo-Gothic skyscrapers often have strong vertical lines and a sense of great height; arched and pointed windows with decorative tracery; gargoyles and other medieval carvings; and pinnacles.
The architects Raymond Hood and John Howells were selected over many other architects to design the building. Their Neo-Gothic design may have appealed to the judges because it reflected a conservative some critics said "regressive" approach. The facade of the Tribune Tower is studded with rocks collected from great buildings around the world. With their sleek forms and ziggurat designs, Art Deco architecture embraced both the machine age and ancient times.
Zigzag patterns and vertical lines create dramatic effect on jazz-age, Art Deco buildings. Interestingly, many Art Deco motifs were inspired by the architecture of ancient Egypt. The Art Deco style evolved from many sources. The austere shapes of the modernist Bauhaus School and streamlined styling of modern technology combined with patterns and icons taken from the Far East, classical Greece and Rome, Africa, ancient Egypt and the Middle East , India, and Mayan and Aztec cultures.
Art Deco buildings have many of these features: cubic forms; ziggurat, terraced pyramid shapes with each story smaller than the one below it; complex groupings of rectangles or trapezoids; bands of color; zigzag designs like lightening bolts; strong sense of line; and the illusion of pillars.
The emphasis was on sleek, curving forms and long horizontal lines. These buildings did not feature zigzag or colorful designs found on earlier Art Deco architecture. The Chrysler Building in New York City was one of the first buildings composed of stainless steel over a large exposed surface.
The architect, William Van Alen, drew inspiration from machine technology for the ornamental details on the Chrysler Building: There are eagle hood ornaments, hubcaps, and abstract images of cars.
The 20th and 21st centuries have seen dramatic changes and astonishing diversity. Modernist architecture emphasizes function. It attempts to provide for specific needs rather than imitate nature. The roots of Modernism may be found in the work of Berthold Luberkin , a Russian architect who settled in London and founded a group called Tecton.
The Tecton architects believed in applying scientific, analytical methods to design. Their stark buildings ran counter to expectations and often seemed to defy gravity. The expressionistic work of the Polish-born German architect Erich Mendelsohn also furthered the modernist movement. The seaside public hall has been called Streamline Moderne and International, but it most certainly is one of the first modernist buildings to be constructed and restored, maintaining its original beauty over the years.
The Mannerist style originated in Florence and Rome and spread to northern Italy and, ultimately, to much of central and northern Europe. The term was first used around the end of the 18th century by the Italian archaeologist Luigi Lanzi to define 16th-century artists who were the followers of major Renaissance masters.
Mannerism originated as a reaction to the harmonious classicism and the idealized naturalism of High Renaissance art as practiced by Leonardo, Michelangelo, and Raphael in the first two decades of the 16th century. In the portrayal of the human nude , the standards of formal complexity had been set by Michelangelo, and the norm of idealized beauty by Raphael.
The highest value was instead placed upon the apparently effortless solution of intricate artistic problems, such as the portrayal of the nude in complex and artificial poses. Mannerist artists evolved a style that is characterized by artificiality and artiness, by a thoroughly self-conscious cultivation of elegance and technical facility, and by a sophisticated indulgence in the bizarre.
The figures in Mannerist works frequently have graceful but queerly elongated limbs, small heads, and stylized facial features, while their poses seem difficult or contrived. The deep, linear perspectival space of High Renaissance painting is flattened and obscured so that the figures appear as a decorative arrangement of forms in front of a flat background of indeterminate dimensions.
Mannerists sought a continuous refinement of form and concept, pushing exaggeration and contrast to great limits. The results included strange and constricting spatial relationships, jarring juxtapositions of intense and unnatural colours, an emphasis on abnormalities of scale, a sometimes totally irrational mix of classical motifs and other visual references to the antique, and inventive and grotesque pictorial fantasies.
Let's explore the major events of those periods that shaped modern America. The Age of Exploration lasted from the 15th through the 17th centuries. This was the period when Europeans were searching the globe for trading routes and natural resources. It resulted in the founding of numerous colonies in North America by the French, British and Spanish. The Colonial Era is a fascinating period in American history. It covers the time from when the European countries first created colonies in North America to the time of independence.
In particular, it focuses on the history of the thirteen British colonies. Then, in , Picasso's work regains its romantic quality in a series of paintings in warmer colors, many of them in the color pink. Picasso's Rose Period paintings still show resignation, but no mourning and while his Blue Period paintings seem to serve to express Picasso's sorrow, his Rose Period style begins to lead a life of its own, in the artistic spirit of his time: it's not the subject and its content that matters most, but the painting itself.
Picasso goes on to experiment in a style that renders his subjects anonymous, resulting in an artistic matrix of a person, rather than a person. See for instance Seated Female Nude The type of person is recognizable, not the person itself. The subject is characterized, not portrayed. This, although a step in the direction of abstract art, is not most important feature of Picasso's Rose Period. Picasso's Rose period breakthrough consists in the fluency of line he was beginning to achieve inAlthough our timeline lists dates related mostly to American architecture, historic periods do not start and stop at precise points on a map or a calendar. Periods and styles flow together, sometimes merging contradictory ideas, sometimes inventing new approaches, .