They are start, change, and result. The start is pretty self-explanatory. It is where the problem starts. It is the beginning of the problem. The change is what changes within the work problem.
What gets added to or taken from the person or object in the problem. The result is not the answer, rather it is the result of the change. The result is only the answer when it is the unknown. Another key part of the routine is to always solve for the unknown. The unknown can be any of the three: start, change or result, and how a student solves the problem will change depending on the placement of the unknown. I consistently use a box for the unknown. As I walk through the problem, I will label the start change and result and use a box for whatever is unknown.
That is the part that students need to find out. As I walk through the word problem with students I label it with an S, C, and R to signify the start, change and result in the problem.
This labeling also helps keep keep the vocabulary consistent. On the last slide, Stephen showed students the sentence with the word included. By asking them to predict the word that would go in the blank and think about clues along the way, he was also teaching his students in a way that guaranteed they would remember the word as they learned social studies content. Imagine a fifth grade class where a teacher can hold up a card with a word like abolitionist written on it, and within a minute small groups of students have figured out the meaning of the word—without the teacher uttering one sound.
This is not an imaginary classroom. Leslie Montgomery, who teaches in a high poverty public elementary school, regularly witnesses this phenomenon. Her students have learned the power of using the meanings of prefixes, roots, and suffixes especially common Greek and Latin roots to figure out the meanings of words.
This skill can often seem like magic to kids, but is really sophisticated vocabulary knowledge that they need in order to learn at higher levels. More than 60 percent of words in an English dictionary stem from Greek and Latin roots, and in science and technology, it is more like 90 percent Moats, Most researchers agree that middle level students need to develop morphological awareness to comprehend challenging texts across the curriculum.
Yet research shows that many students reach middle school without this crucial skill Graves, The performance of their students did not do much to persuade them otherwise.
Tonie taught her seventh grade students that there is a small list of affixes that can be found in most words with prefixes or suffixes. This knowledge was powerful for her students and made the job of become morphologically aware a lot easier. Tonie also emphasized morphological knowledge as students read passages in her class. For example, Tonie selected the word undisciplined , a word that was important for comprehension in the Pandora myth her students read and discussed.
She then invited kids to infer the definition of the word based on the meanings of the parts. An animated conversation ensued as students used both context and word parts to determine the meaning of the word as it was used in the myth. Content area teachers have also found that teaching students the meanings of common word parts can help students learn more.
Stephen taught his seventh graders that the suffix -ism indicates social, political, or religious beliefs or ways of behaving. Because of the knowledge of this suffix and other word parts, his students were excited to predict and discuss the meanings of words like monotheism , polytheism , and colonialism —important words for the social studies unit of study.
Of course we need to teach students to use dictionaries, glossaries, and thesauruses to verify an inference and check the meaning of a word.
But we can also teach students how to expand vocabulary into semantic networks by finding synonyms and antonyms in these reference materials as part of their word exploration. For example, Susan invited her eighth graders to use a variety of digital sources to explore selected words.
Students were astounded to find numerous definitions, synonyms, and antonyms for these words in different sources, leading to a natural discussion of multiple meanings and the context in which the word was introduced.
Because middle school students often just choose the shortest definition for a word, this type of investigation emphasized the importance of using multiple sources and considering the most accurate meaning in the context of the text. Effective vocabulary instruction is not a solemn and silent endeavor! Each teacher I have described above, even though they work with students in very different schools and in varied subject areas, has discovered that a student-centered classroom is the key to effective vocabulary teaching and learning.
We want middle school students to be excited about new words and how to figure them out in text. This is a list of the most common symptoms that might indicate a heart problem in children. Next Steps Contact Us. Why Choose Us. Stay in Touch. This series of simple rescue steps could mean the difference between life and death.
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