There is little question that social media is the most important factor in Trump ascending to the presidency. As I explained last year , in a world where most voters only had access to one or two newspapers, or three or four TV stations, the sheer logistics of gaining the sort of nationwide awareness necessary for a viable presidential campaign required institutional support — political parties, specifically.
This was the core thesis of The Party Decides , a conventional wisdom-defining book which held that, even though the presidential candidate selection process had shifted from smoke-filled rooms to democratic primaries and somewhat less democratic caucuses , in practice political parties specifically, the activists who actually cared about outcomes and thus did the work and raised the money still had veto power on their candidates.
What so many missed , though, was that this definition of political parties and the roles they play was inextricably tied up with the media — specifically, the pre-Internet media. However, as has been well-documented on this site and many others, the media industry has, thanks to the Internet, been completely stripped of its gatekeeper role when it comes to the spread of information. Instead of scarce newspapers or TV stations there is an abundance of information providers, which means the real power has shifted from distribution to discovery.
Rate those CD:. Top Comments 1. See More Does this apply to design? Jars of marbles are then used as an apparently metaphorical device to capture this: in the Android interface, for every bad emotion they cause they look to create enough positive emotions to counter-balance them and so allow their users to flourish. This is apparently achieved through the typical interaction design mix of delighters, accelerators, thoughtful design, etc.
The Android team proudly and unequivocally claim to have been inspired in their design work by a paper that is, as it now transpires, total cobblers. Should we expect massive redesigns to the Android interface? A retraction of this talk? A mea culpa? The incremental improvements, from Project Butter to KitKat, mean stock Android is now smooth, intuitive and often delightful the less said about TouchWiz the better, though.
Indeed, the same presentation shows off some really great work the Android team have done. And yet, the apparent foundation of the design philosophy underlying this excellent user experience has been shown to be nonsense. How can this be? The simple truth is that in no real way was the positivity ratio ever being applied to the design of Android.
Nothing therefore needs to be changed. How could it have been applied to any design? Even if it were true, the sort of inter-human interactions it could have described ignoring the degree to which it was being over-generalised by its authors can only be applied metaphorically to our interactions with an interface. Indeed, it would mean that the designers would have to add a bad experience in for every three good ones in order to get the positivity ratio right!
Second, and more importantly, the positivity ratio was being invoked to truss up the same old design truisms about not annoying users, being mindful of their needs, delighting them, and so forth. The team sought to find more ways to make the user happy and reduce the things that annoy users, and bully for them. Why then even feel the need to allude to the positivity ratio?
That the evidence may be nonsense is irrelevant; no one will check your working, so the only important thing is the sheen of competence — and truthiness — given to your work. Never mind that a huge number of published articles are probably false, nor worry about actually reading the original research.
It also helps to give a memorable spin to hoary old design messages that many of us will have heard before. Liars respect truth values, in the sense that for one to lie they must first acknowledge the truth about which they are trying to deceive us.
The bullshitter, on the other hand:. What he does necessarily attempt to deceive us about is his enterprise. His only indispensably distinctive characteristic is that in a certain way he misrepresents what he is up to. For the bullshitter, however, all these bets are off: he is neither on the side of the true nor on the side of the false. His eye is not on the facts at all, as the eyes of the honest man and of the liar are, except insofar as they may be pertinent to his interest in getting away with what he says.
He does not care whether the things he says describe reality correctly. He just picks them out, or makes them up, to suit his purpose.
Even if they did actually add marbles to jars, it would just be redundantly confirming design decisions they would make anyway. Whether the positivity ratio was true or not was therefore irrelevant to their purpose, which was to make their design decisions appear more grounded in evidence. Precisely the same design decisions would have been made whether or not the ratio was cited.
We do not have time. We are in a hurry to catch the bus or the train and get to work. I am very interested in breakfast today, because I have not had any! The doctor has the silly idea that I may have too much cholesterol in my blood. So, later today, I have to go to have a blood test. The nurse will stick an enormous needle into my arm, and take out several litres of blood, and send the blood away to a laboratory to be tested.
The laboratory will of course send back a report to say that my blood cholesterol is absolutely wonderful, and that they have never seen such magnificent blood before. That means that I must not eat anything for at least 12 hours before the test. So, no breakfast. Now, it would be sensible to have a fasting blood test early in the morning, so that I do not have to wait a long time to have something to eat. You have no idea how terrible this is.Первое его название, возникшее в е годы,— Изотовская улица, видимо, по фамилии домовладельца, а Ферзенским, затем Ферзиным переулком он стал в году по фамилии штаб-ротмистра барона П. Г.